The Czech Ethnographical Society is an association of professionals working in the fields of ethnology and cultural anthropology. It has twenty associate members which include museums, open-air museums and academic institutions. The history of the Czech Ethnographical Society is closely related to the establishment of ethnology as an academic field in the Czech Lands. It was established in 1893 as the Czechoslavic Ethnographical Society in former Austro-Hungarian Empire and its purpose was to organize a large exhibition in Prague which covered primarily traditional culture and traditional architecture (a whole village was build) of the Czech Lands, Slovakia and other Slavic countries, and to publish an encyclopaedia. The ethnographical collections gathered for the Czechoslavic Ethnographical Exhibition held in 1895 were later transferred to the National museum in Prague.
Today the Society has more than 250 members specializing in different aspects of traditional culture and cultural history. They meet annually for conferences and workshops and once in three years for the General Assembly. The Czech Ethnographical Society has two special commissions – Commission for Folk Architecture and Commission for Folk Customs. Since 1906, the Czech Ethnographical Society has been publishing a refereed journal called Ethnographical Bulletin containing studies, reviews and other specialized articles.